MBE | MPRE | MPT | Free MEE Booklet (PDF)
Free MPRE Lecture, by Stan Chess

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[Note: The MEE will change for the July 2007 exam.
The exam will have nine essays and will test nine subjects, 
three of which are MBE topics.]

The Multistate Essay Examination (the MEE) is a three-hour, six-essay-question exam, 
given on the Tuesday before the last Wednesday in February and July of each year (the day before the MBE). 

The subjects covered are Agency & Partnership, Commercial Paper (Negotiable Instruments), Conflict of Laws, 
Corporations and Limited Liability Companies, Decedents' Estates, Family Law, Federal Civil Procedure, 
Sales, Secured Transactions, and Trusts and Future Interests.  Some essays include more than one topic.  
You should average 30 minutes per essay.

The MEE is used by a minority of states (For the list, click here).

There is no uniform national grade on the MEE.  
Each jurisdiction using the exam grades the exam and determines its own policy 
as to weighing the MEE, the MBE and any other portion of its bar exam.

According to the National Conference of Bar Examiners: 

"The purpose of the MEE is to test the applicant’s ability to (1) identify legal issues raised by a hypothetical factual situation;
(2) separate material which is relevant from that which is not; (3) present a reasoned analysis of the relevant issues 
in a clear, concise, and well organized composition; and (4) demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental legal principles
 relevant to the probable solution of the issues raised by the factual situation. 
The primary distinction between the MEE and the Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) is that the MEE requires the applicant 
to demonstrate an ability to communicate in writing effectively."

MEE Instructions

Do not break the seal on this booklet until you are told to begin.

You will have three hours in which to write your answers to six of the seven questions contained in this booklet; you will be told which of the questions you are to answer. Each question is designed to be answered in thirty minutes. There will be no break once the formal testing session begins. You may answer the questions in any order you wish. Do not answer more than one question in each answer booklet. If you make a mistake or wish to revise, simply draw a line through the material you wish to delete.

Read each fact situation very carefully and do not assume facts which are not given in the question. Do not assume that each question covers only a single area of the law; some of the questions may cover more than one of the areas you are responsible for knowing.

Demonstrate your ability to reason and analyze. Each of your answers should show: an understanding of the facts; a recognition of the issues included; the applicable principles of law; and the reasoning by which you arrive at your conclusion. The value of your answer depends not as much upon your conclusions as upon the presence and quality of the elements mentioned above.

Clarity and conciseness are important, but make your answer complete. Do not volunteer irrelevant or immaterial information.

Some jurisdictions instruct applicants to answer MEE questions according to the law of the jurisdiction. Absent such an instruction, you should answer the questions by applying fundamental legal principles rather than local case or local statutory law.

MEE Subject-Matter Outlines
As Prepared by the National Conference of Bar Examiners

The following outlines indicate the examination’s potential scope of coverage. The outlines are not intended to list each aspect of each topic mentioned.

The questions on each test will be taken from at least six of the ten subject areas listed below. Some questions may require analysis of more than one subject area. The particular areas covered will vary from exam to exam.

Agency & Partnership

I. Agency relationships
    A. Creation
    B. Types
    C. Termination

II. Power of agent to bind principal
    A. Authority
    B. Apparent authority
    C. Inherent agency power

III. Vicarious liability of principal for acts of agent

IV. Fiduciary duties between principal and agent
    A. Duty of care
    B. Duty of loyalty
    C. Duty of obedience

V. Creation of partnerships
    A. General partnerships
    B. Limited partnerships
    C. Limited liability partnerships

VI. Power and liability of partners

VII. Rights of partners among themselves
    A. Profits and losses
    B. Management and control
    C. Duty of care
    D. Duty of loyalty

VIII. Dissolution
    A. Distinguished from winding up and termination
    B. Rightful versus wrongful
    C. General partnerships, limited partnerships, or limited liability partnerships

IX. Special rules concerning limited partnerships
    A. Disclosure requirements
    B. The control limitation
    C. Economic rights of limited partners

Commercial Paper (Negotiable Instruments)

(*All citations to the UCC are to the 1999 Official Text.)

I. General UCC principles*
    A. Rules of construction and application (§ 1-101, et seq.)
    B. General definitions and principles of interpretation (§ 1-102, et seq.)

II. General provisions and definitions (§ 3-102, et seq.)
    A. Definitions (§ 3-103)
    B. Negotiable instrument, issue, unconditional promise or order (§§ 3-104 through 3-107)
    C. Payable on demand or at definite time (§ 3-108)
    D. Payable to order or bearer; identification of payee (§§ 3-109 through 3-110)
    E. Other terms (§§ 3-111 through 3-113)
    F. Contradictory terms; incomplete terms (§§ 3-114 through 3-115)
    G. Joint and several liability; contribution (§ 3-116)
    H. Other agreements affecting instrument (§ 3-117)
    I. Statute of limitations; notice of right to defend (§§ 3-118 through 3-119)

III. Negotiation, transfer and indorsement (§ 3-201, et seq.)
    A. Negotiation, rescission and transfer (§§ 3-201 through 3-203)
    B. Indorsements (§§ 3-204 through 3-206)
    C. Reacquisition (§ 3-207)

IV. Enforcement of instruments (§§ 3-301 through 3-311)
    A. Person entitled to enforce; holder in due course (§§ 3-101 through 3-102)
    B. Value and consideration (§ 3-103)
    C. Overdue instrument (§ 3-304)
    D. Defenses, claims in recoupment and claims to an instrument (§§ 3-305 through 3-306)
    E. Notice of breach of fiduciary duty (§ 3-307)
    F. Proof of signatures and status as holder in due course (§ 3-308)
    G. Enforcement of lost, destroyed or stolen instrument (§ 3-309)
    H. Effect of instrument on obligation for which taken; accord and satisfaction (§§ 3-310 through 3-311)

V. Liability of parties (§ 3-401, et seq.)
    A. Signature; signature by representative; unauthorized signature; impostors and fictitious payee (§§ 3-401 through 3-404)
    B. Employer's responsibility for employee's fraudulent indorsement (§ 3-405)
    C. Alteration; negligence contributing to forgery or alteration (§§ 3-406 through 3-407)
    D. Drawee not liable on unaccepted draft (§ 3-408)
    E. Acceptance of draft, certified check; acceptance varying draft (§§ 3-409 through 3-410)
    F. Refusal to pay cashier's, teller's and certified checks (§ 3-411)
    G. Obligations of issuer, acceptor, drawer, indorser (§§ 3-412 through 3-415)
    H. Transfer and presentment warranties (§§ 3-416 through 3-417)
    I. Payment or acceptance by mistake (§ 3-418)
    J. Instruments signed for accommodation (§ 3-419)
    K. Conversion of instrument (§ 3-420)

VI. Dishonor (presentment, dishonor, notice, excuse, evidence of dishonor) (§§ 3-501 through 3-505)

VII. Discharge and payment (§§ 3-601 through 3-605)
    A. Discharge and effect of discharge (§ 3-601)
    B. Payment; tender of payment (§§ 3-602 through 3-603)
    C. Discharge by cancellation, renunciation (§ 3-604)
    D. Discharge of indorsers, accommodation parties (§ 3-605)

Conflict of Laws

I. Domicile
    A. Meaning and legal consequences
    B. State's law by which determined

II. Jurisdiction of courts
    A. Types of jurisdiction
        1. In personam
        2. In rem and quasi in rem
    B. Bases of jurisdiction
    C. Notice and opportunity to be heard
    D. Limits on exercise of jurisdiction
        1. Traditional limitations
            a. Choice of forum by agreement
            b. Fraud, force, and privilege
            c. Forum non conveniens
        2. Constitutional limitations (due process)

III. Choice of law
    A. Basic concepts
        1. Legal characterization
        2. Renvoi
        3. Depecage
        4. Proof of foreign law
    B. Choice of law theories
        1. Traditional "vested rights" approach
        2. "Contemporary policy approaches" (including the interest analysis approach and the substantial relationship approach of Restatement, Second, of Conflict of Laws)
    C. Application in specific areas
        1. Torts
        2. Contracts
        3. Property
        4. Corporations
        5. Worker's compensation
        6. Family law
        7. Substance vs. procedure
    D. Defenses against application of foreign law
        1. Local public policy
        2. Penal laws
        3. Revenue laws
    E. Constitutional limitations
        1. Due process
        2. Full faith and credit
        3. Privileges and immunities
    F. Federal-state conflicts
        1. Federal supremacy
        2. Erie doctrine

IV. Recognition and enforcement of other states' judgments and foreign judgments
    A. Full faith and credit
    B. Effect: claim and issue preclusion
    C. Defenses to recognition or enforcement
    D. Family law judgments

Corporations and Limited Liability Companies

I. Formation of organizations
    A. Articles of incorporation
    B. Bylaws
    C. Articles of organization; certificates of formation
    D. Operating agreements

II. Pre-organization transactions
    A. Promoters: contracts and fiduciary duties
    B. Subscriptions for shares

III. Piercing the veil

IV. Financing the organization
    A. Sources of finance
    B. Securities issuance and characteristics
    C. Dividends and distributions
    D. Redemptions and repurchases

V. Management and control
    A. Shareholders
        1. Meetings: annual, notice, and quorum
        2. Voting: eligibility, cumulative, voting, proxy voting, class voting, voting trusts, and shareholder voting agreements
    B. Directors
        1. Meetings: quorum and notice
        2. Action by written consent
        3. Action by committee
        4. Director's objections to actions
    C. Officers
        1. Authority
        2. Officer's liability on corporate obligations
    D. Members and managers
        1. Authority
        2. Liability
        3. Powers

VI. Fiduciary duties
    A. Directors, officers, and shareholders
    B. Managers and members

VII. Close corporations and special control devices
    A. Share transfer restrictions
    B. Special agreements allocating authority
    C. Resolutions of disputes and deadlocks
    D. Option or buy/sell agreements

VIII. Organizational structure including relationships between parents and subsidiaries
    A. Amendments
        1. Articles of incorporation and bylaws
        2. Articles of organization, certificates of formation, and operating agreements
    B. Mergers and consolidations
    C. Sales of substantially all assets
    D. Recapitalizations
    E. Exchanges of securities
    F. Dissolution of organization

IX. Shareholder and member litigation: direct, derivative, and class litigation

Decedents' Estates

I. Intestate succession
    A. Share of the surviving spouse
    B. Share of children and more remote descendants
        1. Adopted children
        2. Child born out of wedlock
        3. Half bloods
    C. Share of ancestors and collaterals
    D. Advancements
    E. Simultaneous death

II. Wills
    A. Execution requirements
        1. Governing law
        2. Wills complying with law of domicile
        3. Foreign wills
        4. Holographic wills
        5. Interested witnesses
    B. Integration of wills
    C. Codicils
    D. Incorporation by reference
    E. Facts of independent significance
    F. Revocation
        1. Dependent relative revocation
        2. Revocation due to changed circumstances
        3. Revocation by physical act
        4. Partial revocation
    G. Revival
    H. Contractual wills
    I. Construction problems
        1. Lapsed legacies
        2. Ademption
        3. Accretions
        4. Satisfaction
        5. Exoneration
        6. Slayer statutes
        7. Disclaimers
        8. Simultaneous death
        9. Abatement
        10.Classification of legacies and devises
        11.Gifts to classes
        12.Gifts to children and issue
    J. Will contests
        1. Age requirement
        2. Mental capacity
        3. Undue influence
        4. Fraud
        5. Mistake
        6. No contest clauses
        7. Standing to contest
    K. Non-probate transfers
        1. Inter vivos gifts
        2. Joint tenancy
        3. Tentative trusts and pay-on-death accounts
        4. Other non-probate transfers
    L. Powers and duties of personal representative

III. Family Protection
    A. Spouse's forced or elective shares
        1. Size
        2. Assets subject to share
    B. Share of after-born or pretermitted child
    C. Homestead and exempt property
    D. Limitations on charitable bequests

IV. Living wills and durable health care powers
    A. Execution requirements
    B. Revocation
    C. Individuals eligible to be agent or attorney-in-fact
    D. Authority of agent or attorney-in-fact

Family Law

I. Getting married
    A. Controversies arising in anticipation of marriage
    B. Limitations on who may marry
    C. Procedural requirements
    D. State of mind requirements
    E. Common-law marriage and other curative or mitigative doctrines
    F. Premarital contracts

II. Being married
    A. Rights and responsibilities of spouses
    B. Family privacy
        1. Common-law doctrine
        2. Constitutional privacy
        3. Reproductive choices
        4. Evidentiary privileges
    C. Remedies for tortious interference with the marital relationship
III. Separation, divorce, dissolution, and annulment
    A. Grounds and defenses
    B. Jurisdiction and recognition of decrees
    C. Preliminary interlocutory and final orders
    D. Division of property
    E. Maintenance or alimony
    F. Child support
    G. Modification of maintenance and child support
    H. Enforcement of awards
    I. Mediation and other alternative means of dispute resolution
    J. Separation agreements

IV. Child custody
    A. Standards for decision
    B. Visitation
    C. Joint custody
    D. Enforcement
    E. Procedural issues
        1. Jurisdiction to decide custody
        2. Child's preference
        3. Counsel for the child
    F. Modifiation
    G. Mediation and other alternative means of dispute resolution

V. Rights of unmarried cohabitants
    A. Rights of cohabitants inter se
    B. Unmarried parents and their children: illegitimacy
        1. Constitutional limits on discrimination
            a.Unfavorable treatment of illegitimate children
            b.Unfavorable treatment of unmarried parents
    2. Presumption of legitimacy
    3. Establishing paternity
    4. Legitimation

VI. Parent, child, and state
    A. Legal disabilities of childhood
    B. Duty to support
    C. Intra-family immunities
    D. Claims for loss of consortium
    E. Parent's right to control child's upbringing and limitations on parental autonomy
    F. Custodial disputes between parents and third parties

VII. Adoption
    A. Jurisdiction
    B. Agency versus independent placements
    C. Parental consent

VIII. Alternatives to adoption
    A. Artificial insemination by donor
    B. Surrogacy arrangements
    C. In vitro fertilization, gestational surrogacy, and embryo transplantation

Federal Civil Procedure

I. Jurisdiction and venue
    A. Subject matter jurisdiction
        1. Federal courts
        2. State courts
    B. Jurisdiction over parties
    C. Jurisdiction over property
    D. Service of process and notice
    E. Venue, forum nonconveniens, and transfer

II. Law applied by federal courts
    A. State law in federal court
    B. Federal common law

III. Injunctions and provisional remedies

IV. Pretrial procedures
    A. Pleading
    B. Abstention doctrines
    C. Joinder of parties and claims (including class actions)
    D. Discovery
    E. Adjudication without a trial
    F. Pretrial conference and order

V. The trial process
    A. Jury trials
    B. Nonjury trials
    C. Jury instructions
    D. Motions

VI. Verdicts and judgments
    A. Jury verdicts
    B. Judicial findings and conclusions
    C. Directed verdicts and nonsuits
    D. Post-trial motions
    E. Effect; claim and issue preclusion
    F. Appealability and review


(*All citations to the UCC are to the 1999 Official Text.)

I. General UCC principles*
    A. Rules of construction and application (§ 1-101, et seq.)
    B. General definitions and principles of interpretation (§1-201, et seq.)

II. Scope and applicability (§ 2-101, et seq.)
    A. Applicable to transactions in goods (§ 2-102)
    B. Definitions—"merchant," "between merchants," "goods" (§§ 2-104, 2-105)
    C. Definitions relating to existence and formation of contracts (§ 2-106)

III. Form, formation, and readjustment of contracts (§ 2-201, et seq.)
    A. Statute of frauds and exceptions (§ 2-201)
    B. Parol evidence (§ 2-202)
    C. Formation (§§ 2-204, 2-206, 2-207)
    D. Firm offers (§ 2-205)
    E. Course of performance or practical construction (§ 2-208)
    F. Modification, rescission, waiver (§ 2-209)
    G. Delegation and assignment (§ 2-210)

IV. Obligations of parties, construction, and performance (§ 2-301, et seq.; § 2-501, et seq.)
    A. Unconscionability (§ 2-302)
    B. Open price term (§ 2-305)
    C. Output/requirement contracts (§ 2-306)
    D. Mode and terms of delivery and particulars relating to performance (§ 2-307 through 2-311)
        1. Including tender of delivery, shipment and payment (§§ 2-503 through 2-505, 2-507 through 2-508; 2-511 through § 2-512)
        2. Including risk of loss (§ 2-509 through § 2-510)
        3. Including right of inspection and preserving evidence of goods in dispute (§§ 2-513, 2-515)
    E. Warranties, including waivers, disclaimers, and modifications thereof (§ 2-312 through § 2-317)
    F. Sale on approval, consignment sales and incidents thereof (§§ 2-326, 2-327)
    G. Sale by auction (§ 2-328)

V. Passage of title (§ 2-401, et seq.)
    A. "Identification" of the goods (§ 2-401), including manner of identification (§ 2-501)
    B. Good faith purchaser; "entrusting" (§ 2-403)

VI. Breach, repudiation, and excuse (§ 2-601, et seq.)
    A. Buyer's rights on improper delivery (§ 2-601)
    B. Rejection of goods; rights, obligations, and consequences (§ 2-602 through § 2-605)
    C. Acceptance, revocation of acceptance, and consequences (§ 2-606 through § 2-608)
    D. Adequate assurances; anticipatory repudiation(§ 2-609 through § 2-611)
    E. "Installment contract" (§ 2-612)

VII. Remedies (§ 2-701, et seq.)
    A. Seller's remedies in general (§ 2-703)
        1. Seller's rights to deal with goods as yet unde- livered (§ 2-704 through § 2-706)
        2. Damages—measure, incidental damages (§ 2-708 through § 2-710)
    B. Buyer's remedies in general (§ 2-711)
        1. "Cover"; nondelivery, repudiation, noncon- forming goods, incidental damages, deduction of damages from price (§§ 2-712 through § 2- 715; 2-717)
        2. Specific performance (§ 2-716)
    C. Liquidated damages (§ 2-718)
    D. Contractual modification, limitation of remedies (§ 2-719)

Secured Transactions

(*All citations to the UCC are to the 1999 Official Text.)

I. General UCC principles*
    A. Rules of construction and application (§ 1-101, et seq.)
    B. General definitions and principles of interpretation (§1-201, et seq.)

II. Applicability and definitions (§ 9-101, et seq.)
    A. Subject matter of Article 9 (§ 9-109)
    B. Perfection of security interests in multiple state transactions (§ 9-301)
    C. Excluded transactions (§ 9-109)
    D. Definitions; "account"; "purchase money security interest;" "control" (§§ 9-102 through 9-107)
    E. Classification of goods (§ 9-102)
    F. Including sufficiency of description (§ 9-108)
    G. Including security interests arising under Article 2 (§ 9-110)
    H. Priority of consignments (§ 9-103, 9-324)

III. Validity of security agreements and rights of parties (§§ 9-201, et seq.)
    A. Title to collateral immaterial (§ 9-202)
    B. Enforceability (§ 9-203)
    C. After-acquired property; future advances (§ 9-204)
    D. Use or disposition of collateral by debtor (§ 9-205)
    E. Collateral in secured party's possession (§ 9-207, 9-208)
    F. Request for accounting (§ 9-210)

IV. Rights of third parties; perfected and unperfected security interests; rules of priority (§ 9-301, et seq.)
    A. Priority over unperfected security interests (§ 9-317)
    B. Requirement of filing and steps to be taken for perfection (§§ 9-308 through 9-316; §9-501, et seq.); assignment of security interest (§§ 9-514, 9-519)
    C. Protection of buyers of goods and chattel paper (§ 9-320, 9-330), including protection of
holders and purchasers of negotiable instruments (§ 9-331)
    D. Priority of liens arising by law (§ 9-333)
    E. Alienability of debtor's rights (§ 9-401)
    F. Priority among conflicting security interests (§§ 9-322 through 9-329)
    G. Fixtures (§ 9-334)
    H. Accessions; commingling (§§ 9-335, 9-336)
    I. Subordination (§ 9-339)
    J. Defenses against assignee; modification of contract (§§ 9-404 through 9-406)
    K. Termination statement (§ 9-513); release of collateral (§ 9-512)

V. Default (§ 9-601, et seq.)
    A. Rights and remedies on default (§§ 9-601 through 9-606)
        1. Including secured party's collection rights (§ 9-607)
        2. Including secured party's right to take possession and dispose of collateral (§§ 9-608 through 9-624)
    B. Debtor's rights (§§ 9-625 through 9-628)

Trusts and Future Interests

I. Trusts
    A. Classification of trusts
    B. Creation of trusts
        1. Requirement of trust res
        2. Requirement of beneficiary
        3. Requirement of trustee
    C. Types of trusts
        1. Revocable trusts
        2. Irrevocable trusts
        3. Testamentary trusts
        4. Pourover trusts
        5. Charitable trusts
    D. Alienability of trust interests
    E. Protective trusts
        1. Discretionary trusts
        2. Support trusts
        3. Spendthrift trusts
    F. Powers of invasion
    G. Modification of trusts
    H. Termination of trusts
    I. Powers and duties of trustees
        1. Prudent person rule
        2. Duty of care
        3. Duty of loyalty
        4. Duty to act impartially
        5. Principal and income allocations

II. Future interests
    A. Classification of reversions, remainders and executory interests
    B. Life estates and terms of years
    C. Vested and contingent interests
    D. Powers of appointment
    E. Acceleration of future interests
    F. Rule Against Perpetuities
        1. Common law
        2. Wait-and-see
        3. Cy pres
        4. Other reforms

III. Construction problems
    A. Survivorship problems
    B. Gifts to classes
    C. Gifts to heirs
    D. Rule in Shelley's Case
    E. Doctrine of Worthier Title
    F. Gifts to children and issue
        1. Adopted children
        2. Children born out of wedlock
    G. Death without issue
    H. Gifts by implication


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